# Oscillators

**Oscillators** are continuously varying patterns.

Unless otherwise stated, oscillators give minimum values of 0 and maximum values of 1, and repeat once per cycle.

Oscillators are *continuous* patterns, which means they don't have any structure, and must be used with a pattern that does. For example `d1 $ sound "bd*8" >| pan sine`

won't work well, because the `>|`

operator instructs tidal to take structure from the right, and `sine`

doesn't have any structure, so tidal will simply trigger events at a fixed rate (depending on your configuration, this might be very fast). `d1 $ sound "bd*8" |> pan sine`

is better, because `|>`

takes structure from the left, so eight kick drums will play, with pan values sampled from the sine wave for each of the eight events.

*Where a pattern has the type Fractional a => Pattern a, that means that they can be used both as floating point numbers or (rational) time values.*

# sine

Type: `sine :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

A sine wave.

`d1 $ sound "bd*8" # pan sine`

# cosine

Type: `cosine :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

A cosine wave, i.e. a `sine`

shifted in time by a quarter of a cycle.

`d1 $ sound "bd*8" # pan cosine # speed (sine + 0.5)`

# square

Type: `square :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

A squarewave, starting at 0, then going up to 1 halfway through a cycle.

`d1 $ sound "bd*8" # pan (cat [square, sine])`

# tri

Type: `tri :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

A triangle wave, starting at 0, then linearly rising to 1 halfway through a cycle, then down again.

`d1 $ sound "bd*16" # speed (slow 2 $ range 0.5 2 tri)`

# saw

Type: `saw :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

A sawtooth wave starting at 0, then linearly rising to 1 over one cycle, then jumping back to 0.

`d1 $ sound "bd*8" # pan (slow 2 saw)`

# isaw

[Type signature|Type]]: `saw :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

An inverted sawtooth, starting at 1, then linearly falling to 0 over one cycle, then jumping back to 1.

`d1 $ sound "bd*8" # pan (slow 2 isaw)`

# Random oscillators

## rand

Type: `rand :: Fractional a => Pattern a`

An infinitely detailed stream of (pseudo-)random numbers. See[ the rand page for more details.

`d1 $ sound "bd*8" # pan rand`

## irand

Type: `irand :: Num a => Int -> Pattern a`

A function from an integer (giving the maximum) to a stream of (pseudo-)random integer numbers. See[ the rand page for more details.

`d1 $ sound "drum*8" # n (irand 8)`

## choose and friends

These have their own page, click the names for more information:

Type: `choose :: [a] -> Pattern a`

choose continuously oscillates between random choices.

Type: `chooseBy :: Pattern Double -> [a] -> Pattern a`

chooseBy uses an oscillator (or other pattern) to select elements.

Type: `wchoose :: [(a, Double)] -> Pattern a`

wchoose continuously oscillates between random choices, with each choice given a weight/likelihood.

Type: `wchooseBy :: Pattern Double -> [(a,Double)] -> Pattern a`

wchooseBy is like wchoose but another oscillator/pattern is used to select weighted elements.